Exhaust gases of cars contain many substances, some of which are quite harmful compared to others. Gasoline is a hydrocarbon and your vehicle mixes this fuel with air before burning it. This process, called combustion, produces many chemical by-products.
Some of these by-products are completely safe. For example, the air we breathe consists of 78% nitrogen (n2) (nitrogen). Some of this nitrogen reacts with oxygen during combustion, but most is released as n2 from the exhaust of the vehicle. The exhaust gas also contains water (h2o). In winter, we often see water dripping from the exhaust pipes.
car engines emit many harmful substances. some of these can cause acid rain. carbon dioxide (co2), nitrogen oxides (nox) and sulfur oxides are some of them.
Vehicle emissions such as unburned hydrocarbons, particulates (carbon particles) and volatile organic compounds (voc) can cause health problems such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer.
carbon monoxide (co) is one of the toxic gases in vehicle emissions. This gas replaces the oxygen in the bloodstream, causing you to suffocate if inhaled enough.
What we have written so far shows how harmful and dangerous it is to drive. however catalytic converterThis is where the scatterers come into play and make engine emissions less harmful.
What is a catalytic converter?
catalytic converter, french mechanical engineer in the 1950s Eugene Houdry Invented by Houdry designed the catalytic converter to clean the automobile emission.
The widespread use of catalytic converters began around 1975 as governments tried to reduce air pollution from cars. however, many vehicles used leaded gasoline at that time. bullet (pb) was covering the surface of the catalytic converter that reacted with the exhaust gases, preventing it from working properly. therefore, the use of catalytic converters remained limited.
How do catalytic converters work?
the catalytic converter is connected to the exhaust pipe. It includes a metal case and a ceramic honeycomb. this is ceramic honeycomb, platinum (pt), palladium (pd) and rhodium (rh) is coated with a mixture. This noble metals Resistant to oxidation, corrosion and acid. therefore, it is able to withstand bad weather conditions and all chemicals released by the car engine.
noble metals in catalytic converters catalyst functions. Catalysts are compounds that can trigger a chemical reaction without being affected themselves. The honeycomb structure inside the catalytic converter maximizes the surface area where reactions can take place.
What chemical reactions take place in the catalytic converter?
a platinum and rhodium reduction catalyst they use. nitrous oxide nitrogen oxides (no and no2) by removing nitrogen atoms from their molecules (no and no2)nox) help reduce this process allows free oxygen to form oxygen gas (o2). The nitrogen atoms attached to the catalyst then react with each other. this reaction creates nitrogen gas (n2). As a result of all this, less NOx and nitrogen, which is already high in the air, is released.
catalytic converters are also made of platinum or palladium. oxidative catalyst It helps to reduce hydrocarbons (hc) and carbon monoxide (co). Initially, carbon monoxide and oxygen combine to form carbon dioxide (CO2). then unburned hydrocarbons and oxygen combine to form carbon dioxide and water.
modern catalytic converters oxygen sensors (lambda sensor), they control how much oxygen is pumped into the exhaust stream. Providing the right amount of oxygen makes the reduction and oxidation reactions more efficient.
Researchers are also investigating whether gold can be used in catalytic converters. While it may sound expensive, gold is less expensive than many other noble metals. there is also the possibility that our metals such as platinum will run out in a few 10 years.
Catalytic converters are also very susceptible to theft due to the expensive metals they contain. In Jeffersontown, Kentucky, USA, a family who stole 180,000 US dollars worth of catalytic converters in just 4 months was caught by police teams.
Unfortunately, due to the high cost of replacement in our country, diesel particulate filter and catalytic converter cancellation is quite common.